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MIS770 Foundation Skills in Data Analysis

Published : 23-Oct,2021  |  Views : 10


Discipline knowledge and capabilities appropriate to the level of study related to a discipline or profession Apply the fundamentals of quantitative reasoning to solve real-world problems.


A technical report could not be imagined without some kind of graphical illustration for supporting the text (Asadi Someh and Shanks 2015). However, with the rapid growth of digitalisation, the developed reports need to be attractive as well as interesting for gaining an insight of the complex data. This could be illustrated with the help of graphs, tables, pictures and charts. However, the criteria of evaluation could be established in different ways based on the way of apprehension. Hence, this report would be reviewed on legitimate practices at the time of forming visualisations depending on the annual report of Deakin University in Melbourne.

Development of evaluation criteria

            The format and content of the report are ascertained on the capabilities and requirements so that the audience could have a clear insight of the same. The particular visual illustration helps in evaluating the financial situation, strategic preference and performance of the university. This is because charts, graphs, table and pictures help in simplifying the information of the presentation. Therefore, the evaluation criteria that could be set include the following:

  • The first criteria are the numbers like line charts, pie diagrams and bar graphs, since these are necessary methods of depicting the statistical data (Behardien and Hart 2017).
  • The second criteria comprise of the graphics like column graphs, bar graphs, column charts, line charts, histograms, and surface and scatter charts. The intention is to have a thorough presentation of the purpose. For instance, a pictorial diagram could be able to deliver various languages with the help of illustration (Bekmamedova, Shanks and Carlsson 2014).
  • The third criteria are the layout, in which the incorporation of tables, graphs, colours, charts, pictures and other elements of design are kept as a significant characteristic to produce information. This is highly readable and appealing to the readers (Booth 2015).
  • The fourth criteria are labelling, as it gives interference of pointers (x and y-axes, graph titles, trend lines and phrases) to the charts, graphs, tables and pictures for the aptness of the readers.
  • The fifth criteria are the graphical references, which are required to be referenced properly with position, plot area, units of x and y-axes, gridlines and titles for contrasting between the information through aptness (Brownell 2014).
  • The sixth criteria are the utilisation of effective variables, in which the graphical demonstration needs to have the needed variables at each axis for evaluating the core of the information, which could be used in the report further.
  • The seventh criteria are the specified range of information, as the incorporation of data needs to have specific information explaining the years, upper and lower limits or cross-sectional longitudinal nature of data.
  • The eighth criteria involve background and design, in which the chosen design needs to hold eloquence in the format, which is comforting and attractive for the audience to maintain interest through relevance and consistency.
  • The ninth criteria are the line charts, which need to help in depicting the trends of identical intervals or for over a year at the time of contrasting different categories and impact on the primary nature (Comuzzi et al. 2016).
  • The tenth criteria are the keys, in which the depictions deliver information for depicting the particular meaning to the line styles of shadings utilised and colours. This is assumed to be at the middle or in the right side of the chart for effective illustration (Goebel, Norman and Karanasios 2015).
  • The eleventh criteria include the positioning, in which the depiction utilised in the report needs to be cross-referenced with effective discussion in a way that chart in a single page and text on another page with effective numbering is justified.
  • The twelfth criteria include scaling, in which the facility given in the graph is to divide data in qualitative as well as quantitative nature or both effectively, which does not seem to be haphazard. Moreover, various factors of data could be facilitated singly for contrast.
  • The thirteenth criteria are the fonts and presentation, which need to be with the primary nature of the organisation. For instance, BHP Billiton deals with varied mineral products. Therefore, the font of the organisation needs to be colourful, attractive and bold for associating the audience with the organisation.
  • The fourteenth criteria are the encoding process, in which short data and long figure needs to be presented with the help of codes or numbers or responses for maintaining the simplicity of the graphical demonstration.
  • The fifteenth criteria are customisation, in which the data could be customised developed on the reports prepared for focusing on significant data in order to achieve satisfaction.
  • The sixteenth criteria are the financial and non-financial evaluation, in which the evaluation based on visualisations needs to help in providing assistance to any reader background for enhancing the presentation value (Green and Green 2017).  
  • The seventeenth criteria are the data integration, in which the data integrated in charts and graphs is required to be identical; however, interactive to the facts or tables depicted in the report (Holsapple, Lee-Post and Pakath 2014).
  • The eighteenth criteria are the effectiveness of graphical demonstration, in which the complex data or nature of numbers needs to be different in various projects. For instance, various stages in a project could be represented with the help of population segmentation through pie chart and Gantt chart (Ittmann 2015).
  • The nineteenth criteria include the relation of information, in which a chart could have two chart styles in a single presentation. This helps in scrutinising the nuances of the utilised data (Naseer et a 2017).
  • The twentieth criteria are the geometrical determinants, in which the observers have been driven systematically through curvature properties like the framework of contour. In addition, the technique of segmenting complex shapes could be segregated in smaller parts with the help of visual properties such as size, location and orientation (Quinn 2014).               

Evaluation of BHP Billiton annual report

            BHP Billiton is one of the leading resource and mining firms having nearly 100,000 staffs in more than 25 countries. The headquarter of the organisation is in Melbourne, Australia and it is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange and London Stock Exchange as BHP Billiton Limited and on Johannesburg Stock Exchange as BHP Billiton Plc ( 2017). The organisation has been established in 2001 due to the merger between Broken Hill Proprietary (BHP) and Billiton. The main products of the organisation include iron ore, copper, manganese, aluminium, silver, uranium, nickel, titanium minerals, petroleum and coal assets. The objective of BHP Billiton is to deliver effective return to the shareholders. However, this intention is to stay put for the stakeholders that evaluate the annual report of the organisation visually.

The report depicts sophistication in its design, style and background (criteria 8) that it develops an influence on the readers (Sharma, Mithas and Kankanhalli 2014). In addition, the annual report of the organisation has edgy and sharp contours (criteria 20) representing acceptability and efficiency. This has been depicted with the help of various figures and charts as laid out in the annual report of BHP Billiton in 2016.

The above two figures are developed on performance review and indicators, which add as well as create wealth. The colour, graphics, fonts and layout (criteria 2, 3 and 13) used in the charts are combined with various colours. The bar chart covers the various areas of creation of wealth with the help of key performance indicators. In addition, the chart is a symbol of scaling (criteria 12), which segregates the quantitative numerical data with the qualitative categories accomplished for each category (Tang, Norman and Vendrzyk 2017). Therefore, in this case, the wealth percentage that BHP Billiton has received in 2016 is depicted with the help of above-stated figures. The figure 3 depicts the significance of numbers (criteria 1) with the utilisation of graphics (criteria 2) and the layout used is stacked as well as representative (criteria 3) of wide overview of the organisation.

            The above figures depict the significance of the operating model (associated with nature) for BHP Billiton (criteria 13). The effective variables have been utilised for designing the graphical analogies significant for the view of the stakeholders (criteria 6). On the contrary, the tables are properly positioned with the year in review (criteria 11 and 17). This is depicted in such a way that the readers could evaluate the numbers from the tables. However, the variations could be verified from the charts listed.  

            The figure 5 has effective labels for each representation with the help of a picture (criteria 4). On the other hand, figure 5 is a tabular illustration of the earnings of various departments in BHP Billiton. This provides a thorough insight of the various product performances to the readers of the organisation (criteria 15).

            The above figures depict the significance of the operating model (associated with nature) for BHP Billiton (criteria 13). The effective variables have been utilised for designing the graphical analogies significant for the view of the stakeholders (criteria 6). On the contrary, the tables are properly positioned with the year in review (criteria 11 and 17). This is depicted in such a way that the readers could evaluate the numbers from the tables. However, the variations could be verified from the charts listed.

     Effective labels for each representation with the help of a picture (criteria 4). On the other hand, figure 5 is a tabular illustration of the earnings of various departments in BHP Billiton. This provides a thorough insight of the various product performances to the readers of the organisation (criteria 15).

            On the other hand, the figure 8 is an illustration of the social investment summary depicting the major variables in the year with effective numbers and changes (criteria 4), which the corporation has encountered during the period. In addition, the effectiveness of variables with numbers has provided an effective layout form (Watson 2014).

            According to the illustration of various charts and graphs, the organisation is equipped with the help of various kind of bar and line charts. The figure 7 is a mix of numbers and graphics, which include bar charts using the ways of representation (criteria 4 and 5). In addition, all the charts have labels and both the axes have been labelled, which help in providing a clear understanding in the mind of the readers (criteria 4). On the contrary, line charts and bar graphs have effective keys; for instance, different combination of orange colours has been used to depict the remuneration structure being representative of minimum, maximum and target (criteria 5 and 10). The bar graph depicts the remuneration of the financial year 2016 on ASX (criteria 9).

            Conversely, figure 8 depicts the remuneration mix for CEO, since each colour depicts various labels (criteria 4, 10 and 12). The coding process has been applied to the chart with the table for simplifying the data for grabbing complete attention. The figure 9 primarily depicts the relation of information with labels and keys through bar graph depicting the remuneration for CEO. The relation of information explains aptness (criteria 18) in a chart as a method of scrutinising the fine distinction. The figure 10 depicts BHP Billiton Vs Peer Group and Index TSR, which depicts the LTIP for over five years (criteria 4, 10 and 19).

Helps in depicting the investment of BHP Billiton from 2009-2016 with the help of line graphs, which associates the different information for several years. (criteria 4 and 18). The figure 12 helps in providing depicting remuneration mix of OMC members and separate classifications are mentioned in the file (criteria 5 and 10).


            From the above discussion, it could be inferred that the presentation of annual report has been made on various criteria set. The drawn criteria have been the major constituents that the readers observe in any type of report. In addition, with the help of various graphs, charts, pictorial depictions and charts, the foundation skills have been studied. However, the empowerment of these skills is possible through further scrutiny.

References (2017). [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Aug. 2017].

Asadi Someh, I. and Shanks, G., 2015. How Business Analytics Systems Provide Benefits and Contribute to Firm Performance?.

Bekmamedova, N., Shanks, G.G. and Carlsson, S.A., 2014. Achieving Organisational Benefits with Social Media Analytics. In Dss (pp. 533-544).

Booth, D., 2015. Digital success through data and analytics maturity. Journal of Digital & Social Media Marketing, 2(4), pp.338-344.

Brownell, B., 2014. The New Look of Analytics. Research World, 2014(47), pp.26-31.

Comuzzi, M., Comuzzi, M., Patel, A. and Patel, A., 2016. How organisations leverage Big Data: a maturity model. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(8), pp.1468-1492.

Green, D. and Green, D., 2017. The best practices to excel at people analytics. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 4(2), pp.137-144.

Holsapple, C., Lee-Post, A. and Pakath, R., 2014. A unified foundation for business analytics. Decision Support Systems, 64, pp.130-141.

Ittmann, H.W., 2015. The impact of big data and business analytics on supply chain management. Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management, 9(1), pp.1-9.


Quinn, M., 2014. The elusive business partner controller. Controlling & Management Review, 58(2), pp.22-27.

Sharma, R., Mithas, S. and Kankanhalli, A., 2014. Transforming decision-making processes: a research agenda for understanding the impact of business analytics on organisations. European Journal of Information Systems, 23(4), pp.433-441.

Tang, F., Norman, C.S. and Vendrzyk, V.P., 2017. Exploring perceptions of data analytics in the internal audit function. Behaviour & Information Technology, pp.1-12.

Watson, H.J., 2014. Tutorial: Big data analytics: Concepts, technologies, and applications. CAIS, 34, p.65.

Goebel, R., Norman, A. and Karanasios, S., 2015, April. Exploring the Value of Business Analytics Solutions for SMEs. In UKAIS (p. 22).

Behardien, W. and Hart, M., 2017, May. Value of Visual Analytics to South African Businesses. In International Conference on Decision Support System Technology (pp. 101-116). Springer, Cham.

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