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BUSN20017 Effective Business Communications

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Provide an overview of each sport/activity/hobby and what it entails for the participant. You can look at costs such as time, money and opportunity costs as well as health benefits such as exercise, fresh air and holistic health. There
are many other costs and benefits so think broadly about this.

Is each a growth sport/activity/hobby in Australia or worldwide What are the participation trends for each sport/activity/hobby over time What can you predict might be the future trends in each sport/activity/hobby and why What would you recommend in terms of future funding needed for each chosen sport.


Research interest on physical activity and health can be traced back to the 1950s, whereby the health benefits of physical activity largely took place during 1980s and 1990s. There is significant amount of evidence that playing sports and other physical activities is an important part of a healthy lifestyle (Reiner et al., 2013). Some of the positive effects of engaging in physical activity are prevention of several diseases like diabetes, depression and obesity. The report throws light on two such physical activities, which may be taken up as a hobby or as a sport.

The activities are badminton and dance. Badminton is a physical sport game played with a shuttlecock and a racquet. It is a multi player game with its popularity around the globe. Whereas, dance dates back to a number of centuries back where dance was considered a means of communicating folklores and other benefits (Hallal et al., 2012). This report throws light on the overview, origin and history of the chosen physical game and hobby. The present participation trends and future trends of the game have also been provided. The report also tends to give recommendations regarding the funding of both the games.

 Sport 1: Badminton

Badminton can be described as a racquet sport, which is usually played using racquets. The racquet is used to hit the shuttlecock across the net.  There are two sides to the specific game however each side can strike the shuttle cocks only once before it passes over the given net. The game between the two players ends when the shuttlecock hits the floor or when any other fault has been declared by the umpire or the service judge. Thee points in the game are scored when the shuttlecock struck by one player`s racquet hits the opposite person’s half side of the court.

Although it is a multi-player game, the game is generally played in the given forms:

  • Single- with one player on each side
  • Double- With two players on each side

The game is usually played outside as a casual outdoor activity or an activity in a yard or in the beach. However, when the game played formally is played in a rectangular indoor court. The shuttlecock, which is passed, is made of features or a plastic projectile. This shuttle flies differently from other balls used in various sports. Shuttlecocks have a higher speed than other balls in other sports like tennis.

The game is said to be developed in the British India coming out from the battledore and shuttlecock. The game is extremely popular in Asia with recent competition from China. The badminton is a Summer Olympic sports and is conducted in the form of five events which are women and men`s singles, women and men doubles and mixed doubles (Di et al., 2012).

The player in the game should be having aerobic stamina, strength, speed, precision and agility. The game is also considered a technical sport and therefore it requires adequate motor skills and development of the racquet movements.

History of the game

Similar games like badminton have been played since many years across the European as well as Asian continents. However, the modern game, which is played presently, has its origin in the 19th century and was played in Britain as a form of the game, which was played earlier, the battledore and shuttlecock, game. Its exact origin dates remain unknown. In 1860, a London Toy dealer of the name Isaac Spratt published a book named Badminton Battledore of which no copies have been found (Deka et al., 2017).

It is believed that the game has been developed among the expat officers during their time in British India. The game was extremely popular in the 1870s. In the earlier period of 1850s, the game was played with a woolen ball. Previously, the game was also known as Poonah after the town of Pune where it was extremely popular. This is the place where the first rules of the game were drawn and the officers had started a badminton club.

Earlier, the sport was played between four players also but it was established quickly that it is a 2-person game or four-person game at the most. The game was played under the rules in Pune up to 1887 however; Hart of the Bath Badminton Club revised these rules and then the Badminton Association of England, published and launched these rules thereby starting the first badminton competition named All England Open Badminton mixed doubles (MacVicar, 2015). The association governs the international badminton. Various nations like China, Denmark, Indonesia, Australia and Korea have produced various internationally acclaimed players.

Governing bodies

The Badminton World Federation (BWF) is an internationally acclaimed governing body of sport, which is responsible for conducting the tournaments and for the fair play aspect. The various confederations are:


The federation organizes various competitions all around the globe, including the Thomas Cup and the Uber cup. This completion takes place every two years. The Sudirman Cup is a mixed game also held once every two years.

Benefits of Playing the Badminton

  • Physical fitness: This particular activity comprises of various other activities like lunging, running, diving and the game helps in burning 450 calories in an hour. This kind of an exercise can keep the body fit.
  • Psychological benefits: The game promotes physical fitness and helps to reduce anxiety and stress. Exercise releases endorphins, which tends to improve the mood as well as the sleep cycle.
  • Social health: The game is good for social health as well. The interaction among various teammates and opponents will result in positivity and help the individual in becoming a part of the community.
  • Good for overall health: The particular game can also reduce the risk of higher blood pressure, diabetes and obesity (Siva, 2014).
  • Mobility: As the body, age’s mobility becomes limited. Staying active by playing badminton may help the body in staying agile. Along with mobility, the game also helps to lose weight, which helps to remain fit and indulge in various activities.  
  • Monetary benefit- The playing of this particular game also helps to gain monetary benefits, which can result when one is playing for the country, or when one wins certain tournament or gets some income for the endorsement of a brand.
  • Status- Playing the game also improves the image and social status of the player.

Costs incurred in playing badminton

It is often believed that there are no costs associated with the game except that of the equipment but it is not so. The following costs can be incurred in the given sport:

  • Monetary costs: Monetary costs are the majority of expenses incurred in the given game. Costs are incurred for a variety of reasons, which range from coaching fees, equipment costs, travelling costs, registration fees incurred for the various activities.
  • Opportunity costs- Opportunity costs are costs that could be incurred in doing something other than the given task. The time that the player may have spent in playing badminton could have been invested in something else like swimming, cricket and others (Siva, 2014).
  • Other costs that may be incurred are costs like cost of living in a hotel when attending a tournament, cost of food, medical expenses and others.

Participation trends 

It has been observed that the participation trend of the given game has been changing around the globe (Refer to Figure 1 in the Appendix). Earlier, only people in the Asian countries and in Europe used to play the given game; however, these days’ people from all around the globe have been playing the particular game. The rules of the game have been changing considerably along with the period such as the resting time between various points smashing rules and others (Ramchandani & Wilson, 2014). However, these changes have not had any effect on the given participation and they have only increased. This shows that the players have become more explosive, tactical and accurate.  

Participation Trends in Australia

Badminton has been existent in the country since the 1900s; the game is relatively popular in the Victoria region. The badminton association was formed in 1932 and with this; the nation became the 11th member of the international federation. The country is yet to become a competitive name in the field of badminton (Dube, Mungal & Kulkarni, 2015). However, some players present in the country have reached great heights in the field of badminton. The trend for the Australians has not been well in the international games however, the country had performed well in the 2012 London Olympics.

Future Trends

According to the Badminton World Federation, the future of badminton will be extremely interesting. The federation plans to make the game exciting as well as innovative and they plan to make the game a beach sport and launch the game in the e-gaming platform. The decision made looks extremely interesting and this has led to an increase in the investment attractiveness. Various stakeholders will be propelled to invest in the given game (El-Gizawy & Akl, 2014).

The world governing body of the game has planned to collaborate with some beach tournament federations where the trials of collaborating this game with other beach games will be tested and played later. These games will be played in both Asian Beach Games and Russian National Beach Games. This move will definitely help in reviving the genre of the game (Jaworski & Zak, 2016). Those playing the particular game also like to play the game outside therefore, the fans will be happy.  

Various technical aspects would need to be reconsidered but the future lies in the game being played outdoors.


It can be observed from the given table that the participation trend in the given game has not been extremely high. The game as stated previously achieves huge funding in countries like China whereas in Australia the funding received is extremely low. (Refer to Appendix 1).

The given table shows how the participation has increased though not at the desired rate.


2016 participants)



 The future of Badminton is considered extremely exciting and as the federation has been planning to take the game outdoors, the revival of the particular genre of the game will be extremely helpful in making the investment a wise one. The investors of the game can be someone who is extremely enthusiastic about the game and understands positive impact of the game. The badminton has been changed because the dynamics of the world has been changing and the game cannot rely on government funding anymore.

Hence, the following can be used to promote the game:

  • Advertisement- about the benefits of the game
  • Promotion- regarding the upcoming tournaments and game.

In 2016, the Australian government funded 797000$ towards badminton and the results can be seen as the Australians are slowly progressing towards achieving high ranks in sports. Whereas the Chinese, provided funds 10 times more than the Australian government to its nationals which then leads to higher results. Hence, this could be stated that higher funding lead to better results which can then lead to higher rankings in the game worldwide. According to Majeed (2016), accountability models have been introduced to improve rankings in the game.

Hobby 2: Dance

Dance can be referred to as a performing art form, which comprises of selected sequences of human body movement. Dance can be considered as an art or a hobby, which can be taken by an individual to keep fit or to pass time. The movement, which had been referred to can also hold an aesthetic or symbolic value. Dancing can also be categorized by the form of its choreography or also by its place of origin (Le Guin, 2017). Various dance forms may also include human movements like gymnastics, cheerleading, figure skating and other forms of athletics.

History and Origin

Early evidences suggest that dance is one of the oldest heritages of various continents and countries. Various paintings and statues have been found in the various parts of the world like in India in the Bhibetka caves, in Egypt in various inscriptions (Vanhees et al., 2012). It has been studied that before the written languages were invented, dance was the major medium of communication and method of passing down the stories from one generation to the other. Dance is believed to have healing rituals and this factor of it was considered one of the causes of the social development of the dance forms.

Various references to dance can be traced back to early history. Various records have been found in early history, and have been referred in books by Plato, Lucian and Aristotle. Various artifacts in the Chinese, Neolithic and other periods have also referred to the dance as a part of their culture (Fernández-Argüelles et al., 2015).

There are various kinds of dance forms in the globe. Some of the popular dance forms are American Rhythm, Cha Cha, Rumba, Ballet, Free style, Hip-hop, Contemporary, Classical, Latin and so on (Schürch & Grüter, 2014).

Various contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical and ethnic dance forms.

Dance is generally performed along with music. Some dance forms tend to provide their own music such as tap dance. Various forms of music and dance were created with one another. These dance forms include jig, waltz, tango and salsa.  

Approaches to dance

Concert dance

The concert dance narrates to a large-scale form, which follows a narrative dramatic structure. The choreography, which is formed, is generally done to mime the personality of the character in the given plot. Such an act requires free movements than non-narrative dance styles. Other dance forms such as the ballet allow rhythm in the dance (Noice, Noice & Kramer, 2013). Japanese dance forms as if Noh and Kabuki are Indian dance-drama, which involves stage properties, multiple characters and acrobatics.

Very often dances are also intended for social functions. They may also be performed for just mere participation rather than for an audience.


There are various dance competitions held around the globe. In the dance competition, various contestants tend to participate and perform before the judges for awards or in return for some cash prize. There are various kinds of dance competitions held all around the globe

Benefits of Dance as a hobby

The benefits of dance as a hobby have been provided below:

  • Dance helps to stay fit for all age groups and for people of all shapes and sizes. The mental benefits of dancing ranges from endurance, motor fitness, better coordination and improved spatial balance and awareness (Thompson, 2015).
  • Apart from these given benefits, dancing also helps to improve and maintain the overall psychological balance.
  • It also helps to improve the social skills of the person engaged in the hobby as the person gets to interact with many more people engaged in the same hobby.
  • It improves muscular strength, endurance, motor fitness, aerobic fitness and encourages weight management (Mukherjee, Banerjee & Chatterjee, 2012).
  • It also improves physical confidence and general well –being
  • Dancing s a relevant hobby that also increases self-confidence and self-esteem.
    Dancers are socially acclaimed personalities who receive lot of respect in the society. Hence, social respect and popularity is another benefit
  • There are monetary benefits as well which are the reward money earned from engaging in various performances and competitions. Income gained from sponsoring brands and other relevant sources.

Costs incurred in dancing

It is often believed that there are no costs associated with the hobby but it is not so.  The following costs are incurred: Monetary costs:

  • Monetary costs are incurred in the hobby. The cost of coaching, the equipments, travelling expenses, registration fees, costume and make up. Dance coaching is generally charge a hefty amount for their services and this is the primary cost of the hobby.
  • Opportunity costs- Opportunity costs are costs that could be incurred in doing something other than the given task (Guzmán?García et al., 2013). The time that the dancer is engaging in the dancing process could have been utilized in some other activity. The time that the player may have spent in dancing could have been utilized in planning, swimming, cricket and others.
  • Other costs that may be incurred are costs like cost of living in a hotel when attending a competition, cost of food, medical expenses and others.

Participation Trends

The increasing popularity of dance as a fitness hobby as well as a social acclaim mechanism has increased the popularity of the hobby worldwide as well as in Australia. These days’ small children from the age of two are given training in dancing and are developed so that they become successful dancers. Various dance forms have been developed all around the globe, which have bought people closer and developed new dance trends (Hilton, 2012). These trends are dab, twerking, and Carlton dance and so on.

Participation Trend in Australia

In Australia, the aborigines of the nation have developed various indigenous dance forms since a long time. The waves of Bondi and the Melbourne Shuffle have been famous dance trends of Australia. The Australian ballet is also a famous dance form, which was developed in the country in 1962 (Kurková & Jayne Maertin, 2014). There are various dance companies in Australia like the Australian Ballet, Queensland Ballet, West Australian Ballet, Chunky Move, Dance north, Sydney dance company and others (Refer to Figure 2 in the Appendix).

Future Trends

The future of dance lies in collaboration. There are various dance forms all around the globe, which need to collaborated with one another and a fusion, needs to be made (Volpe et al., 2013). This fusion helps in bringing various countries together and developing a new environment where culture, learning and music are fostered.

In general, the global popularity of dance forms have been increasing and the countries are hosting various dance competitions so as to promote the participation in the various dance forms.

The recommendations for the future funding of the sport have been given below:

  • Collaboration is the key- The dance schools and other dancers around the globe need to collaborate with major competitions and functions so that dance is promoted and funds are received.
  • Raising awareness and engaging in various promotional activities- The various dance forms, their benefits and popularity needs to be told to people so that they start funding
  • Funding from the acclaimed dancers- Acclaimed dancers need to be encouraged to promote the hobby and fund.
  • Since, the government is not promoting the dance and performing arts in Australia, it can be seen that the enrollment index in the particular activity has been decreasing considerably. Whereas round the globe, this trend has increasing considerably.


Therefore, from the discussion it can be stated that a physical sport or a hobby is extremely important. The sport helps in maintaining the balances of the body. It helps the individual in staying healthy. Badminton was developed in the 19th century and has been developed every since. The sport is playing internationally and various academies have been set up to promote the game. In Australia, the game is extremely famous as well. The second part of the report is based on the hobby of dance. Dance has been developed since the early age where it was used as a medium of communication. Since then various forms of dance has been developed. Dance has various monetary as well as health benefits, which have been discussed in the given report. Hence, it is suggested that the state government as well as the central government promotes this game for the welfare of the people.


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Di, X., Zhu, S., Jin, H., Wang, P., Ye, Z., Zhou, K., ... & Rao, H. (2012). Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players. Brain connectivity, 2(4), 225-233.

Dube, S. P., Mungal, S. U., & Kulkarni, M. B. (2015). Simple visual reaction time in badminton players: a comparative study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 5(1), 18-20.

El-Gizawy, H., & Akl, A. R. (2014). Relationship between reaction time and deception type during smash in badminton. J Sport Res, 1, 49-56.

Fernández-Argüelles, E. L., Rodríguez-Mansilla, J., Antunez, L. E., Garrido-Ardila, E. M., & Muñoz, R. P. (2015). Effects of dancing on the risk of falling related factors of healthy older adults: a systematic review. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 60(1), 1-8.

Guzmán?García, A. H. J. C., Hughes, J. C., James, I. A., & Rochester, L. (2013). Dancing as a psychosocial intervention in care homes: a systematic review of the literature. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 28(9), 914-924.

Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., Ekelund, U., & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The lancet, 380(9838), 247-257.

Hilton, L. (2012). Tap Dancing America: A Cultural History.

Jaworski, J., & ?ak, M. (2016). Identification of Determinants of Sports Skill Level in Badminton Players Using the Multiple Regression Model. Human Movement, 17(1), 21-28.

Kurková, P., & Jayne Maertin, J. (2014). The benefits of square dancing as a means of physical activity for Czech dancers with hearing loss. Acta Gymnica, 44(4), 223-230.

Le Guin, U. K. (2017). Dancing at the edge of the world: Thoughts on words, women, places. Grove Press.

Majeed, A., Nizar, K., Latheef, A., & Nishad, M. (2016). EFFECTS OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON AGILITY AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL IN BADMINTON PLAYERS. International Journal of Sports Sciences & Fitness, 6(2).

MacVicar, B. (2015). Badminton Club Success Story. Physical & Health Education Journal, 81(2), 1.

Mukherjee, S., Banerjee, N., & Chatterjee, S. (2012). Effect of Bharatnattyam dancing on body composition and physical fitness status of adult Bengalee females.

Noice, T., Noice, H., & Kramer, A. F. (2013). Participatory arts for older adults: A review of benefits and challenges. The Gerontologist, 54(5), 741-753.

Ramchandani, G., & Wilson, D. (2014). Historical and contemporary trends in competitive balance in the Commonwealth Games. RICYDE. Revista internacional de ciencias del deporte, 10(35).

Reiner, M., Niermann, C., Jekauc, D., & Woll, A. (2013). Long-term health benefits of physical activity–a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC public health, 13(1), 813.

Schürch, R., & Grüter, C. (2014). Dancing bees improve colony foraging success as long-term benefits outweigh short-term costs. PloS one, 9(8), e104660.

Siva, K. (2014). Resistance Training Detraining And Retraining Effects On Speed Parameters And Physiological Variables Of Junior Badminton Players.

Thompson, W. R. (2015). Worldwide survey of fitness trends for 2016. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal, 19(6), 9-18.

Vanhees, L., De Sutter, J., Geladas, N., Doyle, F., Prescott, E., Cornelissen, V., ... & Doherty, P. (2012). Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in defining the benefits to cardiovascular health within the general population: recommendations from the EACPR (Part I). European journal of preventive cardiology, 19(4), 670-686.

Volpe, D., Signorini, M., Marchetto, A., Lynch, T., & Morris, M. E. (2013). A comparison of Irish set dancing and exercises for people with Parkinson’s disease: a phase II feasibility study. BMC geriatrics, 13(1), 54.

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